Vaginal yeast infection – wikipedia yeast infection

Vaginal yeast infection, also known as candidal vulvovaginitis and vaginal thrush, is excessive growth of yeast in the vagina that results yeast infection side effects in irritation. [5] [1] the most common symptom is vaginal itching, which may be severe. [1] other symptoms include burning with urination, a thick, white vaginal discharge that typically does not smell bad, pain during sex, and redness around the vagina. [1] symptoms often worsen just before a woman’s period. [2] vaginal yeast infection

Vaginal yeast infections are due to excessive growth of candida. [1] these yeast are normally present in the vagina in small yeast infection side effects numbers. [1] it is not classified as a sexually transmitted infection; however, it may occur more often in those who are frequently yeast infection side effects sexually active. [1] [2] risk factors include taking antibiotics, pregnancy, diabetes, and HIV/AIDS. [2] eating a diet high in simple sugar may also play yeast infection side effects a role. [1] tight clothing, type of underwear, and personal hygiene do not appear to be factors. [2] diagnosis is by testing a sample of vaginal discharge. [1] as symptoms are similar to that of the sexually transmitted yeast infection side effects infections, chlamydia and gonorrhea, testing may be recommended. [1]

Despite the lack of evidence, wearing cotton underwear and loose fitting clothing is often recommended yeast infection side effects as a preventative measure. [1] [2] avoiding douching and scented hygiene products is also recommended. [1] treatment is with an antifungal medication. [4] this may be either as a cream such as clotrimazole yeast infection side effects or with oral medications such as fluconazole. [4] probiotics have not been found to be useful for active yeast infection side effects infections. [6]

Around 75% of women have at least one vaginal yeast infection at yeast infection side effects some point in their lives, while nearly half have at least two. [1] [7] around 5% have more than three infections in a single year. [7] it is the second most common cause of vaginal inflammation yeast infection side effects after bacterial vaginosis. [3]

Vaginal yeast infections are typically caused by the yeast species yeast infection side effects candida albicans. Candida albicans is a common fungus often harbored in the yeast infection side effects mouth, digestive tract, or vagina without causing adverse symptoms. [11] the causes of excessive candida growth are not well understood, [12] but some predisposing factors have been identified.

Infection occurs in about 30% of women who are taking a course of antibiotics by yeast infection side effects mouth. [2] broad-spectrum antibiotics kill healthy bacteria in the vagina, such as lactobacillus. These bacteria normally help to limit yeast colonization. [13] [14]

In pregnancy, higher levels of estrogen make a woman more likely to yeast infection side effects develop a yeast infection. During pregnancy, the candida fungus is more common, and recurrent infection is also more likely. [2] there is tentative evidence that treatment of asymptomatic candidal vulvovaginitis yeast infection side effects in pregnancy reduces the risk of preterm birth. [15] lifestyle edit

Those with poorly controlled diabetes have increased rates of infection yeast infection side effects while those with well controlled diabetes do not. [2] the risk of developing thrush is also increased when there yeast infection side effects is poor immune function, [9] as with HIV/AIDS, or in those receiving chemotherapy.

While candida albicans is the most common yeast species associated yeast infection side effects with vaginal thrush, infection by other types of yeast can produce similar symptoms. A hungarian study of 370 patients with confirmed vaginal yeast yeast infection side effects infections identified the following types of infection: [16]

Complicated thrush is four or more episodes of thrush in yeast infection side effects a year or when severe symptoms of vulvovaginal inflammation are yeast infection side effects experienced. It is also complicated if coupled with pregnancy, poorly controlled diabetes, poor immune function, or the thrush is not caused by candida albicans. [9] recurrent edit

About 5-8% of the reproductive age female population will have four or yeast infection side effects more episodes of symptomatic candida infection per year; this condition is called recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). [18] [19] because vaginal and gut colonization with candida is commonly seen yeast infection side effects in people with no recurrent symptoms, recurrent symptomatic infections are not simply due to the presence yeast infection side effects of candida organisms. There is some support for the theory that RVVC results yeast infection side effects from an especially intense inflammatory reaction to colonization. Candida antigens can be presented to antigen presenting cells, which may trigger cytokine production and activate lymphocytes and neutrophils yeast infection side effects that then cause inflammation and edema. [20] [21]

• intravaginal agents: butoconazole, clotrimazole, miconazole, nystatin, tioconazole, terconazole. [4] candidal vulvovaginitis in pregnancy should be treated with intravaginal clotrimazole yeast infection side effects or nystatin for at least 7 days. [22] all are more or less equally effective. [23]

Short-course topical formulations (i.E., single dose and regimens of 1–3 days) effectively treat uncomplicated candidal vulvovaginitis. The topically applied azole drugs are more effective than nystatin. Treatment with azoles results in relief of symptoms and negative yeast infection side effects cultures in 80–90% of patients who complete therapy. [4]

The creams and suppositories in this regimen are oil-based and might weaken latex condoms and diaphragms. Treatment for vagina thrush using antifungal medication is ineffective in yeast infection side effects up to 20% of cases. Treatment for thrush is considered to have failed if the yeast infection side effects symptoms do not clear within 7–14 days. There are a number of reasons for treatment failure. For example, if the infection is a different kind, such as bacterial vaginosis (the most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge), rather than thrush. [9] recurrent edit

For infrequent recurrences, the simplest and most cost-effective management is self-diagnosis and early initiation of topical therapy. [24] however, women whose condition has previously been diagnosed with candidal vulvovaginitis yeast infection side effects are not necessarily more likely to be able to diagnose yeast infection side effects themselves; therefore, any woman whose symptoms persist after using an over the yeast infection side effects counter preparation, or who has a recurrence of symptoms within 2 months, should be evaluated with office-based testing. [4] unnecessary or inappropriate use of topical preparations is common and yeast infection side effects can lead to a delay in the treatment of other yeast infection side effects causes of vulvovaginitis, which can result in worse outcomes. [4]

When there are more than four recurrent episodes of candidal yeast infection side effects vulvovaginitis per year, a longer initial treatment course is recommended, such as orally administered fluconazole followed by a second and yeast infection side effects third dose 3 and 6 days later, respectively. [25]

Other treatments after more than four episodes per year, may include ten days of either oral or topical treatment yeast infection side effects followed by fluconazole orally once per week for 6 months. [23] about 10-15% of recurrent candidal vulvovaginitis cases are due to non- candida albicans species. [26] non- albicans species tend to have higher levels of resistance to yeast infection side effects fluconazole. [27] therefore, recurrence or persistence of symptoms while on treatment indicates speciation yeast infection side effects and antifungal resistance tests to tailor antifungal treatment. [25] alternative medicine edit

Up to 40% of women seek alternatives to treat vaginal yeast infection. [28] example products are herbal preparations, probiotics and vaginal acidifying agents. [28] other alternative treatment approaches include switching contraceptive, treatment of the sexual partner and gentian violet. [28] however, the effectiveness of such treatments has not received much study. [28]

Probiotics (either as pills or as yogurt) do not appear to decrease the rate of occurrence of yeast infection side effects vaginal yeast infections. [29] no benefit has been found for active infections. [6] example probiotics purported to treat and prevent candida infections are yeast infection side effects lactobacillus fermentum RC-14, lactobacillus fermentum B-54, lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1, lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and lactobacillus acidophilus. [30]

• ^ a b c d e f ilkit, M; guzel, AB (august 2011). "The epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidosis: a mycological perspective". Critical reviews in microbiology. 37 (3): 250–61. Doi: 10.3109/1040841X.2011.576332. PMID 21599498.

• ^ a b c d e f g h workowski KA, berman SM (august 2006). "Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2006". MMWR recomm rep. 55 (RR-11): 1–94. PMID 16888612. Archived from the original on 2014-10-20. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= ( help)

• ^ a b abad, CL; safdar, N (june 2009). "The role of lactobacillus probiotics in the treatment or prevention yeast infection side effects of urogenital infections – a systematic review". Journal of chemotherapy (florence, italy). 21 (3): 243–52. Doi: 10.1179/joc.2009.21.3.243. PMID 19567343.

• ^ mendling W, brasch J (2012). "Guideline vulvovaginal candidosis (2010) of the german society for gynecology and obstetrics, the working group for infections and infectimmunology in gynecology and yeast infection side effects obstetrics, the german society of dermatology, the board of german dermatologists and the german speaking mycological yeast infection side effects society". Mycoses. 55 suppl 3: 1–13. Doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0507.2012.02185.X. PMID 22519657.

• ^ watson, C. J.; grando, D.; garland, S. M.; myers, S.; fairley, C. K.; pirotta, M. (26 july 2012). "Premenstrual vaginal colonization of candida and symptoms of vaginitis". Journal of medical microbiology. 61 (pt 11): 1580–1583. Doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.044578-0. PMID 22837219.

• ^ roberts, CL; algert, CS; rickard, KL; morris, JM (21 march 2015). "Treatment of vaginal candidiasis for the prevention of preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Systematic reviews. 4: 31. Doi: 10.1186/s13643-015-0018-2. PMC 4373465. PMID 25874659.

• ^ nemes-nikodém, éva; tamási, béla; mihalik, noémi; ostorházi, eszter (1 january 2015). "Vulvovaginitis candidosában előforduló sarjadzógomba-speciesek" [yeast species in vulvovaginitis candidosa]. Orvosi hetilap (in hungarian). 156 (1): 28–31. Doi: 10.1556/OH.2015.30081. PMID 25544052.

• ^ sobel JD, wiesenfeld HC, martens M, danna P, hooton TM, rompalo A, sperling M, livengood C, horowitz B, von thron J, edwards L, panzer H, chu TC (august 2004). "Maintenance fluconazole therapy for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis". N. Engl. J. Med. 351 (9): 876–83. Doi: 10.1056/nejmoa033114. PMID 15329425.

• ^ ratcliffe, stephen D.; baxley, elizabeth G.; cline, matthew K. (2008). Family medicine obstetrics. Elsevier health sciences. P. 273. ISBN 978-0323043069. Archived from the original on 2016-08-21. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= ( help)

• ^ a b c pappas, PG; kauffman, CA; andes, DR; clancy, CJ; marr, KA; ostrosky-zeichner, L; reboli, AC; schuster, MG; vazquez, JA; walsh, TJ; zaoutis, TE; sobel, JD (16 december 2015). "Clinical practice guideline for the management of candidiasis: 2016 update by the infectious diseases society of america". Clinical infectious diseases. 62 (4): e1–50. Doi: 10.1093/cid/civ933. PMC 4725385. PMID 26679628.

• ^ a b xie HY, feng D, wei DM, mei L, chen H, wang X, fang F (november 2017). "Probiotics for vulvovaginal candidiasis in non-pregnant women". Cochrane database syst rev. 11: CD010496. Doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010496.Pub2. PMC 6486023. PMID 29168557.