Tissue sampling viginal yeast infection, processing and staining – sampling

Brush biopsy – this technique is used for sampling the ureter as well viginal yeast infection as for detecting cancers in the mouth, bronchus, biliary tract and oesophagus. For tissue samples of the ureter for example, the method of retrograde brush biopsy cytology is used. In this method, a cystoscope enters through the urethra and the bladder in viginal yeast infection order for a guidewire to gain access to the ureter. A catheter is then passed over the guide wire and viginal yeast infection a contrast dye is instilled through it which enables positioning viginal yeast infection next to the lesion using fluoroscopy. After irrigation with saline solution, a nylon or steel brush is placed through the catheter viginal yeast infection and the lesion is rubbed with the brush. This is repeated several times using a new brush each viginal yeast infection time. When the brush is removed, the tip of the brush is saved and tissue from viginal yeast infection the lesion is removed from the brush tip. After the last brushing, the area is irrigated with saline and this is also viginal yeast infection sent for examination

Computed tomography (CT) – this is a diagnostic technique in which the combined use viginal yeast infection of a computer and X rays passed through the body viginal yeast infection at different angles produces clear cross-sectional images of the tissue under examination. CT scanning, also known as computed axial tomography (CAT scanning) is particularly useful for locating and imaging tumours and for viginal yeast infection facilitating needle biopsies

Liquid based cytology (LBC) – this is an automated alternative to the conventional cervical (pap) smear. In the LBC (thinprep) system, a sample from the cervix is collected using a brush viginal yeast infection type plastic device which is then detached into a vial viginal yeast infection of transport medium. In the laboratory, the tubes are vortex mixed and the suspension passed through viginal yeast infection a density gradient centrifugation process to remove mucus and blood viginal yeast infection cells. The cell pellet is then resuspended and a thin layer viginal yeast infection sample transferred to a microscope slide which can then be viginal yeast infection stained and examined microscopically

Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) – this is one of the most commonly used approaches to viginal yeast infection treat high grade cervical dysplasia discovered on colposcopic examination. In the UK it is known as large loop excision viginal yeast infection of the transformation zone (LLETZ).The procedure has many advantages including low cost, high success rate, and ease of use. The procedure can be done in an office setting and viginal yeast infection usually only requires a local anaesthetic

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – this is a non-invasive imaging technique which uses a strong magnet and radiofrequency viginal yeast infection waves to produce images of internal organs. The clinical role of MRI in cancer imaging includes determining viginal yeast infection the true edges of tumours prior to surgery, differentiating palpable masses from scar or dense tissue and detecting viginal yeast infection occult breast cancers mammographically and sonographically in patients with axillary viginal yeast infection nodal metastases. Though MRI has potential applications, it is not routinely used in breast cancer

Mammography – the mammogram is an X-ray of the breast which is able to detect cancer viginal yeast infection at an early and curable stage. Mammography can identify breast cancers that are too small to viginal yeast infection be palpated by physical examination and can also detect the viginal yeast infection presence of localised lumps. Digital mammography is an emerging technique which uses computers and viginal yeast infection specially designed detectors to produce a digital image of the viginal yeast infection breast that can be displayed on high-resolution monitors. However, these tests cannot say whether the cancer is benign or viginal yeast infection malignant so a biopsy is needed to confirm the diagnosis. Vacuum-assisted breast biopsies are percutaneous procedures that rely on stereotactic viginal yeast infection mammography or ultrasound imaging. Stereotactic mammography involves using computers to pinpoint the exact location viginal yeast infection of a breast mass based on mammograms taken from two viginal yeast infection different angles. The computer coordinates will help the physician guide the needle viginal yeast infection to the correct area in the breast

Needle biopsy – in this technique, a large bore needle is inserted into a tissue mass viginal yeast infection to extract one or many cores of tissue. If a suspected tumour is inaccessible or located deep within viginal yeast infection the body, it may be necessary to use ultrasound imaging or a viginal yeast infection CT (computerised tomography) scanner in order to precisely position a needle through which viginal yeast infection a biopsy sample can be removed

Positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxy- glucose (PET with FDG) – the PET technique involves the use of radioactive material in viginal yeast infection the diagnosis of cancer. In this method, the patient is injected with the radioactive substance fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a compound taken up by metabolically active tissues. As cancer cells are more metabolically active than normal tissues, the tumour tissue will take up relatively more radiolabelled substance. The patient is placed in a scanner to detect the viginal yeast infection radiation. This test may be particularly useful to determine the spread viginal yeast infection of cancer to other sites in the body. The main advantage of PET is that it can diagnose viginal yeast infection diseases even before the structural changes are visible. Since, it utilizes isotopes of basic biological elements like carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen, it reveals the disease status at a more cellular level viginal yeast infection than other types of imaging techniques

Vacuum-assisted biopsies – these are usually used for sampling breast tissue and are viginal yeast infection referred to by their brand names of mammotome or MIBB viginal yeast infection (minimally invasive breast biopsy). The mammotome procedure uses a tiny hollow needle probe, which is guided to the abnormal area by computer images viginal yeast infection projected on two screens (a stereotactic view) or by ultrasound. The needle is inserted into the breast tissue and uses viginal yeast infection a vacuum to withdraw the tissue, which is removed by a high-speed rotating cutter. The probe can obtain more than one sample, if necessary, without being withdrawn and reinserted. The physician simply repositions it and activates another rotation. A physician gets about 10 times as much breast tissue viginal yeast infection from the mammotome procedure as from a core needle biopsy. The MIBB instrument resembles a radiolucent needle, making it easier to see on an X-ray. A specimen collection chamber is located below the tip with viginal yeast infection a vacuum unit that pulls the tissue into the chamber

Wire localisation biopsy – this is a specialized procedure used for small or non-palpable breast masses. Using X-ray or ultrasound guidance, the mass is located under anaesthetic and a thin wire viginal yeast infection is carefully inserted into the suspicious area. The surgeon uses the tip of the wire as a viginal yeast infection guide to locate and remove a sample for histology

If the tissue is received unfixed, frozen sections, imprint smears or samples for microbiological investigations may also be viginal yeast infection taken before the tissue is fixed in 10% formalin or other preferred fixative. At cut up, the pathologist can integrate the gross and microscopic appearances to viginal yeast infection arrive at a diagnosis. Surgical resections for tumour must be accurately described and measured viginal yeast infection with photographs and diagrams showing the sites of the selected viginal yeast infection tissue blocks. From these samples, the histopathologist will not only be able to diagnose the viginal yeast infection tumour type but will also be able to report on viginal yeast infection the extent of spread, the adequacy of resection and the presence of local precancerous viginal yeast infection lesions. Samples that include the edge of a tumour are usually viginal yeast infection more informative and although a single block is invariably sufficient, several blocks are usually taken. Sampling of blood vessels should also be performed to show viginal yeast infection the presence of vascular permeation. This should be performed in conjunction with the thorough sampling viginal yeast infection of nodes to show the extent of lymph node involvement viginal yeast infection and it is important that a standard sampling method is viginal yeast infection followed. Palpation of nodes is best avoided since it biases the viginal yeast infection sampling in favour of involved nodes. An alternative and better method is to slice the fat viginal yeast infection at regular intervals and process all nodes presenting at the viginal yeast infection cut surfaces.

Large format histology – in cancer pathology, the application of large format tissue processing is an established viginal yeast infection method for assessing characteristics such as intra-tumour heterogeneity, distribution and surgical margin involvement of large tumour samples. This method has proven to be cost effective and is viginal yeast infection able to meet the needs of the laboratory in the viginal yeast infection multidisciplinary approach to cancer diagnosis. Follow the links below for more information on methods of viginal yeast infection dissecting and processing large format tissue samples or you can viginal yeast infection check them out via the ‘ publications’ tab above.

​because antibiotic therapy is generally the first treatment of choice viginal yeast infection for specific infective processes, surgical resections are rarely performed unless they are found unexpectedly viginal yeast infection during surgery. Fresh samples of these tissues must be taken for microbiological viginal yeast infection studies before tissues are fixed. Culture is essential since some infections may only show sparse viginal yeast infection organisms that may not be detected by gram stain or viginal yeast infection ziehl neelsen in paraffin sections. Resections and resection margins for chronic inflammatory bowel disease need viginal yeast infection to be sampled carefully because the lesions and granulomas may viginal yeast infection be sparse and patchy and precise location will therefore be viginal yeast infection required.

The difference between the amount of tissue sample taken and viginal yeast infection the object as a whole is known as sampling error viginal yeast infection and it may or may not be representative. The fact that changes in some diseases are localised rather viginal yeast infection than diffuse can cause diagnostic problems if sufficient slicing of viginal yeast infection the tissue is not performed. By maintaining consistency, this can be overcome by taking what is regarded as viginal yeast infection an adequate number of blocks of larger pieces of tissue viginal yeast infection or resections. However, in small samples where only a single block is available, then it is equally important to examine deeper sections throughout viginal yeast infection the block to ensure that sampling errors are minimised.

For most diagnostic purposes, paraffin sections are cut at about 5 μm, although there are some uses for sections to be cut viginal yeast infection thicker or thinner. Thick sections will reduce sampling error but are virtually useless viginal yeast infection for diagnosis of most lesions because of superimposition. However, a 20 μm section can be a useful way to viginal yeast infection find pathogens such as bacteria or asbestos fibres provided the viginal yeast infection microscope is focused through all planes of the section during viginal yeast infection the examination. Frozen sections too, can be cut at 10 μm or greater and still viginal yeast infection provide a diagnosis particularly with staining methods associated with the viginal yeast infection nervous system. Although paraffin wax sections can be cut thinner than 5 viginal yeast infection μm, it is easier to use tissues that have been embedded viginal yeast infection in acrylic or epoxy resins since it provides greater support. Current applications include renal biopsies, lymph node biopsies and bone marrow trephines. The clarity provided by 1 μm plastic sections is due viginal yeast infection to the virtual elimination of superimposition of cells and to viginal yeast infection the considerable reduction in tissue shrinkage when com­pared with paraffin wax sections. Although microscopic examination of tissues is the main histopathological method viginal yeast infection of diagnosis, interpretation does not necessarily become easier or more accurate as viginal yeast infection the magnification increases. Even at the microscope, examination of biopsies, tissue samples and resections at different magnifications can give varying viginal yeast infection types of information.

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