Researcher works to understand yeast infection or std how gonorrhea develops resistance to antibiotics musc charleston, sc

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Steadily and relentlessly, the bacterium that causes gonorrhea has slipped past medicine’s defenses, acquiring resistance to once-reliable drugs, including penicillin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. These former stalwarts are no longer used to treat the yeast infection or std sexually transmitted disease.

In 2010, after some strains of neisseria gonorrhoeae, the bacterium responsible for gonorrhea, began showing resistance to one of the last remaining classes yeast infection or std of antibiotics, the centers for disease control and prevention began recommending “dual therapy,” meaning that doctors now prescribe two drugs at the same yeast infection or std time to fight gonorrhea. Currently, those two drugs are ceftriaxone, a member of the cephalosporin class of antibiotics, and azithromycin.

“we’re looking at a molecular level at the events that yeast infection or std have got everybody worried out there in the clinics,” said davies, a professor in the department of biochemistry & molecular biology and director of the MUSC center for structural yeast infection or std biology. Dr. Christopher davies

Davies’ team has just published a paper showing how cephalosporins bind yeast infection or std and inactivate a gonococcal protein dubbed penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2). Led by postdoctoral fellow avinash singh, ph.D., the researchers showed the protein undergoes key structural changes, including twisting and rolling of a loop to bind the yeast infection or std antibiotic, that enhance the reaction with cephalosporins. Without these changes, the protein would react much more slowly with the antibiotic.

Normally, PBP2 moves along the bacterial cell’s cytoplasmic membrane, reaching out into the space between the cytoplasmic membrane and yeast infection or std the outer membrane, looking for peptides to bind to. The protein joins peptides together to create a mesh – just like an onion bag at the grocery store, davies said. But antibiotics jump in to bind to the protein before yeast infection or std it can get to a peptide.

Yet the resistant strains, which have been identified in japan, france, spain and most recently in canada, evade the lethal action of cephalosporins by preventing the antibiotic yeast infection or std from binding to the protein target. How they achieve this is a major focus of davies’ research. “it’s an essential function, so the mutations can’t change the protein too much. It must be able to discriminate. Discriminating against an antibiotic while still retaining the normal binding yeast infection or std and reaction with their substrate is a delicate balancing act yeast infection or std they have to negotiate."

There are 60-some mutations on the PBP2 protein in the resistant strains yeast infection or std of gonorrhea. Davies’ team has identified six mutations that are at the root yeast infection or std of the resistance and is looking at how the mutations yeast infection or std change the way the protein reacts to antibiotics.

Once researchers understand how the mutations are preventing antibiotics from yeast infection or std doing their work, new drugs can be developed, davies said. Knowing which mutations are important may also allow a diagnostic yeast infection or std test to be developed to tell doctors whether a particular yeast infection or std patient has a resistant strain and, therefore, which drugs to prescribe.

Davies said it appears that the mutations restrict the protein’s flexibility, preventing the structural changes needed to bind the antibiotic. That triggers a new mystery. If those movements are critical to its job of binding yeast infection or std to peptides and building the mesh that keeps the cell yeast infection or std wall intact, how can the mutations block the antibiotic but still allow yeast infection or std the normal reaction? “this is the most fascinating aspect of our research,” davies said.

“it’s an essential function, so the mutations can’t change the protein too much. It must be able to discriminate. Discriminating against an antibiotic while still retaining the normal binding yeast infection or std and reaction with their substrate is a delicate balancing act yeast infection or std they have to negotiate,” he said.

“we expect gonorrhea will eventually wear down our last highly yeast infection or std effective antibiotic, and additional treatment options are urgently needed,” said gail bolan, M.D., director of the CDC’s division of STD prevention, when it released those figures.

“we know that there are proven interventions that individuals can yeast infection or std use, including regular use of condoms, that markedly reduce the odds of acquiring a sexually transmitted yeast infection or std disease. So the rise in STD rates suggests there’s a need for more public health interventions and education,” he said.

“an important thing for people to know is you can yeast infection or std have gonorrhea and not have symptoms, so you can’t rely upon the absence of symptoms alone to provide yeast infection or std reassurance that you or your sexual partner do not have yeast infection or std gonorrhea,” meissner said. “sexually active people at risk for gonorrhea exposure should get yeast infection or std regular testing”.

Meanwhile, davies and his team are continuing their work in the yeast infection or std lab. The next step is understanding how the protein can still yeast infection or std perform its normal essential function while eluding the antibiotics. The group has some ideas that it will put to yeast infection or std the test, he said.

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