Needle and syringe programs cost-effectively prevent hepatitis bad yeast infection c

Providing clean injecting equipment through needle and syringe programmes is bad yeast infection a highly cost-effective way of preventing hepatitis C (HCV) transmission among people who inject drugs and could save millions bad yeast infection of pounds in infection treatment costs in the UK, according to research led by the university of bristol and bad yeast infection london school of hygiene & tropical medicine.

Hepatitis C is a blood-borne virus that can seriously damage the liver and cause bad yeast infection death if left untreated. Over 200,000 people are infected with HCV in the UK and bad yeast infection over 90% of new infections are acquired through injecting drugs. Needle and syringe programmes provide sterile injecting equipment and other bad yeast infection prevention and support services. In the UK, they are delivered through pharmacies, mobile vans and specialist agencies.

Using data from three cities with different levels of HCV bad yeast infection infection among people who inject drugs – bristol (45%), dundee (26%) and walsall (18%) – the researchers estimated the costs of existing needle and syringe bad yeast infection programmes in each city, used mathematical models to estimate their impact on the spread bad yeast infection of HCV infection, then estimated the cost-effectiveness of the programmes in each city. They projected how the spread of HCV would increase if bad yeast infection all needle and syringe programmes were stopped for the first bad yeast infection 10 years of a 50-year time period (2016-2065).

There were also projected reductions in the number of HCV bad yeast infection infections – by 8% in bristol and walsall and 40% in dundee between 2016 and 2065 – and improvements in the quality of life among people who bad yeast infection inject drugs. Gains in quality adjusted life years (qalys), a measure of life years saved and their quality of bad yeast infection life, were 502 in bristol, 195 in dundee and 192 in walsall.

Dr zoe ward, from the NIHR health protection research unit in evaluation of bad yeast infection interventions at the university of bristol and co-lead author of the study, said: “we have evaluated the impact and cost-effectiveness of needle and syringe programmes in the UK for bad yeast infection the first time. The results are clear. Needle and syringe programmes not only reduce the number of bad yeast infection new HCV infections among people who inject drugs and improve bad yeast infection their quality of life, they are also low-cost, excellent value for money and, in some areas, save money, which is good news for our cash-strapped local authorities. We hope that public health england and local government commissioners bad yeast infection and policy makers will take note and continue to commission bad yeast infection needle and syringe programmes, which are currently under threat of funding cuts.”

In a related study from the same project, the researchers found that opioid substitution therapy, such as methadone, halved the risk of acquiring HCV infection among people who bad yeast infection inject drugs, and combining opioid substitution therapy with high-coverage needle and syringe provision (providing at least one sterile needle for each injection), led to a 74% reduction in risk.

Sedona sweeney, from the london school of hygiene & tropical medicine, who led the economic evaluation, said: “access to this type of data can be so important bad yeast infection in helping policy makers make tough decisions about how to bad yeast infection invest in public services. Our results very clearly indicate that needle and syringe programmes bad yeast infection are likely to be a strong investment choice – not only in the UK but also other parts of bad yeast infection the world where there are similar levels of hepatitis C bad yeast infection infection among people who inject drugs.

“it is imperative that countries follow the recommendations of the bad yeast infection world health organization by scaling up provision of needle and bad yeast infection syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy. Our findings provide important new evidence to demonstrate that not bad yeast infection only could this lead to fewer people being infected with bad yeast infection this potentially life-changing virus, but could also save money for other local services, which means better health and social care for everyone.”