Kombucha culture asu yeast infection on lips alumni

But as is the case for many things in science, there is more to kombucha than meets the eye — literally. The microscopic microbes inhabiting this fermented concoction could offer insight yeast infection on lips into how microbial communities interact, more specifically on how symbiotic relationships form within complex microbial yeast infection on lips models.

For athena aktipis, an assistant professor in the department of psychology and associate yeast infection on lips faculty in the biodesign center for biocomputing, security and society at arizona state university, being a fan of kombucha herself led to her delving yeast infection on lips deeper.

“honestly, I started working on kombucha because I really liked the yeast infection on lips taste of it," she said. "I started brewing it in my kitchen for my own yeast infection on lips consumption. After brewing it for a couple of months, I would come home from work and just stare at yeast infection on lips it, asking, ‘how do you work?’ being a scientist, I got on google scholar to learn more, but I didn’t find much.”

In response to this, aktipis teamed up with other researchers to take all the yeast infection on lips pieces of the puzzle she had found in preexisting literature yeast infection on lips and put them together see the bigger picture on how yeast infection on lips kombucha operates and how the different species of microbes interact yeast infection on lips and cooperate within.

Alexander may, a prior researcher in aktipis’s lab, led the efforts to expand on this knowledge in a yeast infection on lips review paper published in peerj, the journal of life and environmental sciences. Arvind varsani, an associate professor in the biodesign center for fundamental and yeast infection on lips applied microbiomics and school of life sciences and associate faculty yeast infection on lips in the biodesign center for mechanisms of evolution, and carlo maley, faculty in the school of life sciences and an associate yeast infection on lips professor in the biodesign center for biocomputing, security and society, served as collaborators on the review paper.

“we think kombucha is important as a model system because yeast infection on lips it’s an easy-to-grow microbial community that can potentially answer interesting questions about yeast infection on lips cooperation between different species,” may said. “microbes, including the bacteria and yeast in kombucha, actually have a lot of complex social behaviors that scientists yeast infection on lips are only really starting to learn about. We think that by understanding what’s going on at the small scale, we can get clues as to what happens at the yeast infection on lips larger scale and see if the same patterns even hold yeast infection on lips true in human societies. People have been eating fermented foods like kombucha for centuries, but it’s only recently that scientists have started digging into the yeast infection on lips systems themselves to understand how and why they can benefit yeast infection on lips humans.”

Kombucha is made by first introducing sucrose to black or yeast infection on lips green tea, followed by the addition of kombucha liquid from a previous yeast infection on lips batch. A biofilm, also from a previous batch of kombucha, is then placed on top of the liquid, and the concoction is allowed to ferment for 10 to yeast infection on lips 14 days.

Although this may seem nothing more than a straightforward recipe yeast infection on lips for making a tasty refreshment, these fermentative steps actually sustain a wide variety of microbes, illustrating various ecological concepts we usually only see in real yeast infection on lips time with nonmicroscopic organisms.

For example, the yeast found in the kombucha liquid produces invertase, an enzyme that bacteria and yeast use to metabolize sugars, as a public good. Similarly, bacteria produce a biofilm at the top of the batch yeast infection on lips that protects microbes from outside invaders, provides oxygen and offers space for the storage of resources. Ethanol and acid, the by-products of fermentation, also keep invaders at bay.

“there is an ease of management that comes from it yeast infection on lips — because it is easy to make — but it also has a sort of complexity because it yeast infection on lips contains so many species, and in that way, it is similar to a microbial system you would see yeast infection on lips in nature,” aktipis said. “it is at this really nice boundary between simplicity and yeast infection on lips complexity.”

Kombucha has proven to be an efficient way to study yeast infection on lips interspecies interactions on the microbial scale, but it has much more to offer. From this study, aktipis and collaborators are working on using kombucha as a yeast infection on lips model to develop interventions for bettering human health.

It has been recently brought into light how important the yeast infection on lips human microbiome is — the balance of microbes in our bodies, which we have co-evolved with since the dawn of humankind, is pivotal to human health. Throwing that balance off could have significant adverse effects, but treating humans with microbes could restore that balance.

“right now, we are trying to develop kombucha as a system that yeast infection on lips could allow us to create new antimicrobial products, which are based on multiple species,” aktipis said. “whereas drugs are used to kill organisms, we want to ask, ‘how can we cultivate a diverse microbial community that can yeast infection on lips outcompete pathogens?’”

“there is this tendency in science to only look at yeast infection on lips things that are already being studied. A lot of what we did with this kombucha project yeast infection on lips is coming back to the importance of observation, observing the natural world. I think that’s been a little bit lost, and it’s also much more fun to be aware of your yeast infection on lips world and to try to understand it.”

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