Hip conditions oral yeast infection – the leone center for orthopedic care

Secondary degenerative OA is the result of a prior trauma oral yeast infection or an underlying condition that altered the hip’s normal architecture, resulting in joint deterioration and arthritis. Often a patient has subtle congenital or early childhood abnormalities oral yeast infection which alter normal hip biomechanics and result in a slow oral yeast infection progressive destruction. The person may not have even been aware of the oral yeast infection condition until the hip became symptomatic many decades later.

In our practice, the majority of hips with degenerative OA are secondary to oral yeast infection an underlying condition. We commonly see patients who had developmental conditions at birth, such as hip dislocation or subluxation, or who developed conditions during childhood when their skeletons were oral yeast infection still maturing.

Some people are born with subtle abnormalities in the hip oral yeast infection socket area that cause the femoral head or femoral neck oral yeast infection to “bump” into the rim of the socket when they move. This can damage the rim and lead to arthritis. This condition is referred to as acetabular femoral impingement (FAI) and is a common cause of secondary OA. (will link to blog on subject)

Prior hip trauma with or without a fracture, failed prior surgery on the hip, autoimmune inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid or psoriatic arthritis, loss of the blood supply to the femoral head as oral yeast infection an adult (AVN or osteonecrosis) or as a child (legg-perthes disease) or a slipped capital femoral epiphysis all are common conditions oral yeast infection leading to a diagnosis of secondary OA and the need oral yeast infection for a total hip replacement (THR) later in life.

THR implants include a ball and socket. Various materials and combinations have been used over the years oral yeast infection to produce these components, among them: balls made out of various metals and ceramics and cup oral yeast infection liners made out of metals, plastics and ceramics. Today, most consider a ceramic ball articulating against a modern “highly cross linked polyethylene” socket to be the gold standard combination.

Many patients who have had “metal on metal” implants, that is a metal ball against a metal liner or oral yeast infection socket, are now experiencing problems that require revision. We are also seeing issues with patients who have a oral yeast infection hip resurfacing. Hip resurfacing involves implanting a metal cup directly into the oral yeast infection pelvis and covering the arthritic femoral head with a metal oral yeast infection cap.

Theoretically, a metal on metal articulation has the potential to last oral yeast infection longer and be more durable than a metal or ceramic oral yeast infection ball on a plastic liner. However, these implants can fail if the ball and sock are oral yeast infection not perfectly manufactured and positioned in the body, or if the person exceeds the mechanical limits of the oral yeast infection THR. If lubricating fluid between the surfaces breaks down, the metal surfaces can rub together (edge loading), creating metal debris and other problems. High concentrations of metal ions can destroy tissues locally and oral yeast infection be absorbed systemically, which can cause a host of problems.

Some patients remain asymptomatic until the destruction becomes extensive. For this reason, it is important for us to be proactive. For patients with metal on metal implants, we look for potential problems with baseline studies and encourage oral yeast infection more frequent follow up than standard metal or ceramic on oral yeast infection plastic articulations. If problems are developing, it is better to revise the hip sooner rather than oral yeast infection later to minimize soft tissue destruction.

Historically, the metal ball attached to the femoral stem was made oral yeast infection from a single piece of metal. Today, nearly all stems implanted worldwide are “modular,” that is, the ball is separate from the stem and is attached oral yeast infection to the taper of the stem. The ability to mix and match ball sizes and neck oral yeast infection lengths means that the surgeon can fine tune the components oral yeast infection for more precise reconstruction of hip mechanics and leg length.

Sometimes corrosion develops between the taper and the ball, which is known as taper corrosion. Debris from the corrosion can leach into the tissue, causing local tissue destruction and problems systematically (around the body). Many patients with taper corrosion require revision.

There is no clear consensus about why this is occurring, but the cause is likely multifactorial. We know it is creating very serious problems for some oral yeast infection patients and is being widely studied. It could become a significant clinical problem worldwide because so oral yeast infection many individuals have modular head neck junctions.

A total hip stem has a body that is inserted oral yeast infection into the upper femur. Above the body is the neck of the prosthesis with oral yeast infection a precise gradual narrowing of the metal called a taper. The ball is attached to this taper. Because the ball is detachable, its attachment to the neck is modular.

In this class of primary total hip stems, the neck of the prosthesis is separate from the body oral yeast infection of the stem, and the ball is also a separate component. This separate neck section has a taper that engages the oral yeast infection stem and a separate taper to which the ball is oral yeast infection attached. The idea is to give the surgeon even more intra-operative flexibility to optimize hip mechanics, leg length and stability.

Unfortunately, this class of primary hip stems have not performed well oral yeast infection and a large percentage of patients with these stems have oral yeast infection required revision. In some cases, the stems have been recalled by their manufacturer. Not unlike hips with metal on metal articulation, failure can be asymptomatic until advanced and can result in oral yeast infection irreparable soft tissue destruction and systemic symptoms. For this reason, we recommend more frequent follow-ups so that if revision surgery is indicated, we can perform sooner rather than later.

The best treatment for infection associated with a total joint oral yeast infection is prevention. For this reason, every effort is made to prevent a total joint from oral yeast infection getting infected. If infection occurs, the only way to treat it is with surgery. Antibiotics alone will not cure an infection.

If the infection is acute, that is, it occurs in the first several weeks after surgery and oral yeast infection the bacteria that is infecting the prosthetic joint is sensitive oral yeast infection to antibiotics, then we typically re-open the hip, thoroughly and meticulously debride and irrigate the area while removing oral yeast infection and then replacing the modular ball and plastic liner. The patient is treated with IV antibiotics during and then oral yeast infection after surgery (typically for 6 weeks) and then take antibiotics by mouth (PO). This may salvage the artificial joint and clear up the oral yeast infection infection. It may also fail.

If the infection is chronic , that is, has been present for more than several weeks or the oral yeast infection infection is caused by several organisms (bacteria), a fungus, or an organism that is particularly resistant to common or oral yeast infection easily administered antibiotics, then patients typically must undergo a two stage re-operation to treat and hopefully cure the infection. The first re-operation involves removing the total hip prosthesis, extensively and meticulously debriding the infected area and irrigating the oral yeast infection area. The next step is to implant a temporary total hip oral yeast infection (much like a temporary dental implant prior to the definitive oral yeast infection one) to function as a “dynamic spacer.” the temporary THR is provisionally anchored to the bone using oral yeast infection bone cement. Large quantities of antibiotics are added to the bone cement oral yeast infection which leach out into the local tissue to treat the oral yeast infection infection. IV antibiotics are also given (typically for 6 weeks) followed by PO antibiotics.

We perform the second operation after the antibiotic courses are oral yeast infection complete and further studies indicate that the infection has been oral yeast infection cured. In the second-stage surgery, we remove the temporary total hip, again irrigate and debride the joint and implant the definitive oral yeast infection revision components. We continue antibiotics until intraoperative cultures are negative and many oral yeast infection times longer.

Sometimes it is not possible to place a temporary total oral yeast infection hip (“dynamic spacer”). In this case, antibiotic impregnated bone cement are formed into beads to maximizes oral yeast infection exposed surface area and placed on a wire and then oral yeast infection implanted (“static spacer”) until a definitive THR can be reimplanted after the infection oral yeast infection is fully treated.

While the two-stage operation is optimal for addressing chronic infection, it is not always practical or appropriate. Some patients, for example, are too frail or sick to undergo two major surgeries. For patients who have already undergone one or more revision oral yeast infection surgeries (in which the incidence of infection is much higher than oral yeast infection in primary THR), removing the prosthesis could preclude or compromise the ability to oral yeast infection re-implant another. In these cases, the joint is surgically debrided and irrigated, the modular head and liner are replaced with new ones, the patient is treated with IV antibiotics and then remains oral yeast infection on a suppressive PO antibiotic most likely for life. Our goal in these cases is not to eradicate the oral yeast infection infection but rather to suppress the infection so it is oral yeast infection not expressed.