Evidence types – evidence-based nursing research guide i have a yeast infection – guides at depaul university

A systematic review attempts to identify, appraise and synthesize all the empirical evidence that meets pre-specified eligibility criteria to answer a given research question. Researchers conducting systematic reviews use explicit methods aimed at minimizing do i have a yeast infection bias, in order to produce more reliable findings that can be do i have a yeast infection used to inform decision making ( cochrane library handbook section 1.2.2). When such studies involve specifically quantitative techniques to combine and do i have a yeast infection analyze data from multiple independent studies, they’d be referred to as a ‘meta analysis.’

Works consisting of studies using a quantitative method of combining do i have a yeast infection the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to do i have a yeast infection evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc. It is often an overview of clinical trials. It is usually called a meta-analysis by the author or sponsoring body and should be do i have a yeast infection differentiated from reviews of literature ( pubmed medical subject heading).

Developed by any of a large number of different professional do i have a yeast infection health care organizations, practices and agencies that systematically gather, appraise and combine health care evidence and create statements designed do i have a yeast infection to assist practitioner and patient decision-making.

Here are descriptions used in CINAHL or MEDLINE (pubmed) databases to distinguish between different clinical study types and evidence-based information sources. Other definitions can be found via the ‘definitions’ tab of this research guide, and also in the many available texts covering the field do i have a yeast infection of nursing and clinical research methods.

CINAHL headings description: experiments in which individuals are randomly allocated to an experimental do i have a yeast infection or control group in order to test the value or do i have a yeast infection efficiency of a treatment or intervention. For example, the experimental group is given a pharmacological agent being tested do i have a yeast infection and the control group is given a drug in current do i have a yeast infection use or a placebo and the results are compared.

PubMed mesh description: work consisting of a clinical trial involving one or more do i have a yeast infection test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicine, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trial is characterized as a RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL.

CINAHL headings description: studies where individuals with a particular condition or disease (the cases) are selected for comparison with a series of individuals in do i have a yeast infection whom the condition or disease is absent (the controls). Both groups are compared with respect to existing or past do i have a yeast infection attributes or exposures thought to be relevant to the development do i have a yeast infection of the condition or disease under study. The study proceeds from effect to cause.

PubMed mesh description: studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors do i have a yeast infection hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a do i have a yeast infection particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

CINAHL headings description: studies where a population is selected on the presence and do i have a yeast infection absence of certain characteristics (exposed and nonexposed) and followed over time to determine the incidence of disease do i have a yeast infection or presumed effect. In CINAHL, the phrase ‘longitudinal studies’ maps to the CINAHL heading "prospective studies," whereas in pubmed, ‘longitudinal studies’ is a mesh term (appears beneath the broader mesh term, "cohort studies," in the mesh hierarchy).