Cyphomyrmex – antwiki yeast

Schultz et al (2002), mackay and serna (2010) – cyphomyrmex workers and females are easily recognized, as the frontal carinae form a shield on the dorsum yeast infection side effects of the head, which covers most of the head. The mesosoma has a series of pairs of blunt tubercles yeast infection side effects in nearly all species. The first opisthogastral tergum lacks tubercles. Most surfaces are dull and without sculpture; the hairs are mostly limited to appressed, often scale-like setae that are nearly always restricted to the gaster yeast infection side effects and the head.

The genus is divided into two species complexes, the strigatus complex (kempf 1964) and the rimosus complex (kempf 1965; snelling and longino 1992). Workers of the strigatus complex can be recognized by the yeast infection side effects closed antennal scrobe (sometimes with poorly defined margins), mandibles with six or more teeth, and with a single medial pronotal tubercle (apparently a fusion of two tubercles). The species group is confined to south america. The workers of the rimosus complex have an open antennal yeast infection side effects scrobe (anteriorly), with the preocular carina curved mesially in front of the yeast infection side effects eye, and not directed to the posterior corner of the head, the mandibles have five teeth, and the pronotum lacks medial tubercles, or has a pair of tubercles. Species in the rimosus group range from the united states yeast infection side effects to south american.

Mackay and serna (2010) – cyphomyrmex has two centers of species richness: the rimosus group at about 10° north (mayhe-nunes and jaffe 1998), whereas the majority of the species of the strigatus group yeast infection side effects is restricted to 20° and 30° south (sanhudo et al. 2007). The strigatus group lacks species with wide distributions (mayhe-nunes and jaffe 1998) as is found in the rimosus complex.

Schultz et al (2002), mackay and serna (2010) – most species nest in the soil, in rotten logs and stumps, or in hollow dead twigs. This genus also nests under bark, under moss, and within epiphytic pseudobulbs (snelling and longino 1992). Colonies are small, probably not exceeding 500 workers (snelling and longino 1992). All cyphomyrmex species cultivate badisiomycete fungi in the tribe leucocoprineae. In the rimosus group, most species grow fungi in a yeast form (small masses of unicellular fungal cells) rather than in the multicellular mycelial form typical for all yeast infection side effects other attine ant gardens (schultz et a1. 2002; schultz and brady 2008). Cyphomyrmex longiscapus, cyphomyrmex costatus and cyphomyrmex wheeleri are considered to be part yeast infection side effects of the rimosus group but share some morphological features with yeast infection side effects the strigatus complex. They are also the only species in the rimosus group yeast infection side effects that are known to cultivate mycelium gardens, whereas, so far as is known, all other rimosus group species cultivate yeast gardens.

• bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and classification of formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 198, cyphomyrmex in myrmicinae, attini [type-species not cyphomyrmex difformis, unjustified subsequent designation by emery, 1924d: 340.] )

• snelling, R. R.; longino, J. T. 1992. Revisionary notes on the fungus-growing ants of the genus cyphomyrmex, rimosus group (hymenoptera: formicidae: attini). Pp. 479-494 in: quintero, D., aiello, A. (eds.) insects of panama and mesoamerica: selected stu (page 479, revision of genus)

• wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the american museum congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 669, cyphomyrmex in myrmicinae, attini; cyphomyrmex as genus)