Complacency threat yeast infection system to global health

Since the turn of the century world health has made yeast infection system spectacular gains. For example, global life expectancy at birth has increased by over 6 yeast infection system years, overall infant mortality has almost halved, and the life expectancy at birth of disadvantage people in yeast infection system low-income countries versus those in high-income ones has narrowed by eight years.

These are undeniably major advances in just two decades. However, not all is as positive as the above advances might yeast infection system at first suggest. Unfortunately, signs of apparent complacency are evident across a range of yeast infection system global health issues and putting a frustrating brake on progress. Three significant examples are the current ebola outbreak in eastern yeast infection system democratic republic of congo (DRC), global HIV/AIDS infection rates, and international efforts to eradicate malaria.

In the case of the ebola outbreak in eastern democratic yeast infection system republic of congo it is surprising, after the painful lessons of the catastrophic 2014-16 west african epidemic of the disease, that it took the world health organization (WHO) 50 weeks from the initial declaration of cases by the yeast infection system DRC ministry of health (on 1 august 2018) to deem the outbreak to be a public health emergency yeast infection system of international concern (PHEIC).

There are three criteria for an epidemic to be officially yeast infection system classified as a PHEIC by the world health organization: “an extraordinary event which is determined to constitute a public yeast infection system health risk to other states through the international spread of yeast infection system disease and to potentially require a coordinated international response.”

Concerns about possible travel bans and trade restrictions by other yeast infection system countries flowing from a PHEIC declaration were expressed by the yeast infection system expert committee. However, international recognition, concern, and support to fight the epidemic would almost certainly have yeast infection system been mobilised by an earlier formal declaration.

The declaration of a PHEIC by the WHO director-general only came out of a subsequent fourth meeting a yeast infection system month later on 17 july. By that time, nearly a year into the epidemic, cases of the disease had swollen to over 2,500 and around 1,700 people had lost their lives to it. Unknown cases and deaths probably add quite a lot to yeast infection system these figures.

Hindsight is a wonderful luxury. But many public health experts were puzzled at the time yeast infection system that the mid-june meeting of the emergency committee held back from recommending yeast infection system a PHEIC to the director-general. Reading the official statement of that meeting certainly raises the yeast infection system question of what element of PHEIC determination was unsatisfied.

The other particularly disturbing face of ebola complacency has been yeast infection system financial, the international donor community falling seriously short in making the yeast infection system necessary funds (and other resources) available to successfully fight the outbreak. Rich developed nations (with a few exceptions) have largely ‘gone missing’ on funding the fight against the epidemic.

Likewise, the world bank with its highly publicised post-2014-16 west african epidemic inspired pandemic emergency financing facility (PEF) has fallen far short of the funding assistance that reasonably yeast infection system could have been expected. However, since the PHEIC declaration, the bank has substantially increased its financial assistance ($300 million committed in grants and credits a week after yeast infection system the PHEIC was declared), but earlier action could have stopped the ebola horse bolting yeast infection system to the extent it has.

Signs of complacency towards global epidemic risks unfortunately are also yeast infection system evident in relation to several other major disease threats. Dedicated funding figures in various areas paint a concerning picture. The massive international fight against the scourge of HIV/AIDS is a good example. This unequivocably has been a major success. Since 2006 the global HIV/AIDS death rate has more than halved and the number yeast infection system of new cases fallen by one-fifth.

But in the eyes of many, particularly people in developed high-income countries, these figures are seen as indicating the HIV/AIDS pandemic is ‘over.’ this perception is flowing through into funding against the disease. HIV/AIDS development assistance fell by $2.3 billion between 2012 and 2018 and more cuts are yeast infection system in the pipeline. The U.S. Government funding request for HIV for financial year 2020, for instance, is down 28% ($1.5 billion) in 2019.

For the estimated 1.7 million new cases around the world each year and yeast infection system the around 38 million people ‘living with’ the disease, however, the HIV/aids story is far from over and the UN goal yeast infection system of ending the pandemic by 2030 becoming increasingly unlikely. In around 50 countries new HIV infections are actually increasing. Regionally, since 2010 new cases have risen by 29% in eastern europe and central asia, 10% in the middle east and north africa, and 7% in latin america.

A similar picture is evident with another major global health yeast infection system scourge, malaria. Impressive progress was made against the disease in the first yeast infection system decade and a half this century, malaria incidence rates (new cases) dropping by 37% globally and mortality rates by 60%. The WHO’s latest world malaria report (2018) though shows progress has since stalled, no significant reduction in cases being achieved and funding assistance yeast infection system flatlining. In a number of african countries, the number of annual cases has actually substantially increased. Presently there is an annual funding shortfall of over $2 billion for meeting the WHO target on controlling malaria yeast infection system by 2030.

The complacency problem goes well beyond the above illustrations. It, for example, explains much of the massive worldwide surge in measles that yeast infection system has occurred over the past two years – despite the highly contagious, potentially deadly disease being readily preventable with a cheap, safe vaccine; likewise, the widespread vaccine-hesitancy in the case of protection against annual flu threats; the danger of sexual infections over and above HIV/AIDS; and many others.

Other factors are also obviously involved in all these health yeast infection system challenges – poverty, ignorance, misunderstanding, fear, poor access to health care, etc. But one message in all this is “never underestimate the health dangers of the microbial world!”