Circulatory system breast yeast infection – new world encyclopedia

The mammalian circulatory system reveals a complex and harmonious coordination breast yeast infection of giving and receiving between different systems, including the respiratory system, immune system, lymphatic system, urinary system, and endocrine system. Via the circulatory system, oxygen and nutrients are provided to cells, while waste products from metabolism are removed; carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged in the lungs; hormones are moved from one endocrine organ to receptors in breast yeast infection other parts of the body; and white blood cells and antibodies are transported to attack breast yeast infection foreign agents. The mammalian circulatory system is analogous with the xylem and breast yeast infection phloem system in vascular plants. Open circulatory system

An open circulatory system is an arrangement of internal transport breast yeast infection in which circulatory fluid, in a cavity called the hemocoel (also spelled haemocoel), bathes the organs directly. There is no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid; this combined fluid is called hemolymph (also spelled haemolymph).

Open systems are present in some invertebrates, like mollusks and arthropods. Muscular movements during locomotion by animals with such a system breast yeast infection can facilitate hemolymph movement, but diverting flow from one area to another is limited. When the heart relaxes, blood is drawn back toward the heart through open-ended pores.

Hemolymph fills all of the interior hemocoel of the body breast yeast infection and surrounds all cells. Hemolymph is composed of water, inorganic salts (mostly na +, cl -, K +, mg 2+, and ca 2+), and organic compounds (mostly carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids). The primary oxygen transporter molecule is hemocyanin.

The circulatory systems of all vertebrates, annelids (for example, earthworms), and cephalopods (squid and octopus) are closed, meaning that the blood never leaves the system of blood breast yeast infection vessels, which consists of arteries, veins, and capillaries.

The main components of the closed circulatory system are the breast yeast infection heart, the blood, and the blood vessels. Arteries bring oxygenated blood to the tissues (except pulmonary arteries), and veins bring deoxygenated blood back to the heart (except pulmonary veins). Blood passes from arteries to veins through capillaries, which are the thinnest and most numerous of the blood breast yeast infection vessels.

In fish, the system has only one circuit, with the blood being pumped through the capillaries of the breast yeast infection gills and on to the capillaries of the body tissues. This is known as single circulation. The heart of fish is therefore only a single pump breast yeast infection (consisting of two chambers).

In mammals, poorly oxygenated blood collects in two major veins: the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava. The superior and inferior vena cava empty into the right breast yeast infection atrium of the heart. The coronary sinus, which brings blood back from the heart itself, also empties into the right atrium. The right atrium is the larger of the two atria, although it receives the same amount of blood.

From the left atrium, the blood then travels through the mitral (or left atrioventricular valve), into the left ventricle. The left ventricle is thicker and more muscular than the breast yeast infection right ventricle because it pumps blood at a higher pressure. Also, the right ventricle cannot be too powerful or it would breast yeast infection cause pulmonary hypertension in the lungs. From the left ventricle, blood is pumped through the semi-lunar valve into the aorta.

Once the blood goes through systemic circulation, peripheral tissues will extract oxygen from the blood, which will again be collected inside venules, then veins, and ultimately the vena cava and the process will continue. Peripheral tissues do not fully deoxygenate the blood, thus venous blood does have oxygen, only in a lower concentration in comparison to arterial blood. The release of oxygen from erythrocytes (red blood cells) is regulated. The diffusion of oxygen from red blood cells increases with breast yeast infection an increase of carbon dioxide in tissues, increase in temperature, or a decrease in ph. Such characteristics are exhibited by tissues undergoing high metabolism, as they require increased levels of oxygen.

Many mammals are born with defects in the circulatory system, which can lead to abnormal blood flow and oxygenation in breast yeast infection the body. In humans, these conditions may manifest as "cyanotic spells" ranging from a young age to adulthood, or even as overt cardiomegaly and repeated chest infections. These conditions rarely are corrected naturally, and usually require invasive surgery for correction. If undetected and left alone, the majority are fatal. No circulatory system

An example of organisms without circulatory systems are the flatworms breast yeast infection (phylum platyhelminthes). Their body cavity has no lining or fluid, but rather a muscular pharynx leading to a digestive system. Digested materials can be diffused to all the cells of breast yeast infection the flatworm due to an extensively branched digestive system and breast yeast infection being flattened dorso-ventrally. Oxygen can diffuse from water into the cells of the breast yeast infection flatworm. Consequently every cell is able to obtain nutrients, water, and oxygen without the need of a transport system. Measurement techniques

While the term technically refers to any disease that affects breast yeast infection the cardiovascular system, it is usually used to refer to those related to breast yeast infection atherosclerosis (arterial disease). These conditions have similar causes, mechanisms, and treatments. History of discovery

The valves of the heart were discovered by a physician breast yeast infection of the hippocratean school around the fourth century B.C.E. However, their function was not properly understood then. Because blood pools in the veins after death, arteries look empty. Ancient anatomists assumed they were filled with air and used breast yeast infection for its transport.

Herophilus distinguished veins from arteries, but thought that the pulse was a property of arteries breast yeast infection themselves. Erasistratus observed that arteries that were cut during life bleed. He ascribed the fact to the phenomenon that air escaping breast yeast infection from an artery is replaced with blood that entered by breast yeast infection very small vessels between veins and arteries. Thus, he apparently postulated capillaries, but with reversed flow of blood.

The second century C.E. Greek physician, galen, knew that blood vessels carried blood and identified venous (dark red) and arterial (brighter and thinner) blood, each with distinct and separate functions. Growth and energy were derived from venous blood created in breast yeast infection the liver from chyle, while arterial blood gave vitality by containing pneuma (air) and originated in the heart. Blood flowed from both creating organs to all parts of breast yeast infection the body where it was consumed, and there was no return of blood to the heart breast yeast infection or liver. The heart did not pump blood around, but rather the heart’s motion sucked blood in during diastole and the blood breast yeast infection moved by the pulsation of the arteries themselves.

Galen believed that the arterial blood was created by venous breast yeast infection blood passing from the left ventricle to the right by breast yeast infection passing through "pores" in the interventricular septum. Air passed from the lungs via the pulmonary artery to breast yeast infection the left side of the heart. As the arterial blood was created, "sooty" vapors were created and passed to the lungs, also via the pulmonary artery to be exhaled.

In 1242, the arab scholar ibn nafis became the first person to breast yeast infection accurately describe the process of blood circulation in the human breast yeast infection body. Contemporary drawings of this process have survived. In 1552, michael servetus described the same, and realdo colombo proved the concept, but it remained largely unknown in europe.

Finally, william harvey, a pupil of hieronymus fabricius (who had earlier described the valves of the veins without breast yeast infection recognizing their function), performed a sequence of experiments and announced, in 1628, the discovery of the human circulatory system as his own. He published an influential book, the exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus, about it. This work with its essentially correct exposition slowly convinced the breast yeast infection medical world. Harvey was not able to identify the capillary system connecting breast yeast infection arteries and veins; these were later described by marcello malpighi. References