Chronic myelogenous leukemia treatment (pdq®)–patient version – national how to prevent yeast infections cancer institute

Enlarge complete blood count (CBC). Blood is collected by inserting a needle into a vein how to prevent yeast infections and allowing the blood to flow into a tube. The blood sample is sent to the laboratory and the how to prevent yeast infections red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are counted. The CBC is used to test for, diagnose, and monitor many different conditions.

• blood chemistry studies: A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to how to prevent yeast infections measure the amounts of certain substances released into the blood how to prevent yeast infections by organs and tissues in the body. An unusual (higher or lower than normal) amount of a substance can be a sign of disease.

• bone marrow aspiration and biopsy: the removal of bone marrow, blood, and a small piece of bone by inserting a needle how to prevent yeast infections into the hipbone or breastbone. A pathologist views the bone marrow, blood, and bone under a microscope to look for abnormal cells. Enlarge bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. After a small area of skin is numbed, a bone marrow needle is inserted into the patient’s hip bone. Samples of blood, bone, and bone marrow are removed for examination under a microscope.

• cytogenetic analysis: A laboratory test in which the chromosomes of cells in how to prevent yeast infections a sample of blood or bone marrow are counted and how to prevent yeast infections checked for any changes, such as broken, missing, rearranged, or extra chromosomes. Changes in certain chromosomes, such as the philadelphia chromosome, may be a sign of cancer. Cytogenetic analysis is used to help diagnose cancer, plan treatment, or find out how well treatment is working.

• FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization): A laboratory test used to look at and count genes how to prevent yeast infections or chromosomes in cells and tissues. Pieces of DNA that contain fluorescent dyes are made in how to prevent yeast infections the laboratory and added to a sample of a patient’s cells or tissues. When these dyed pieces of DNA attach to certain genes how to prevent yeast infections or areas of chromosomes in the sample, they light up when viewed under a fluorescent microscope. The FISH test is used to help diagnose cancer and how to prevent yeast infections help plan treatment.

• reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction test (RT–PCR): A laboratory test in which the amount of a genetic how to prevent yeast infections substance called mrna made by a specific gene is measured. An enzyme called reverse transcriptase is used to convert a how to prevent yeast infections specific piece of RNA into a matching piece of DNA, which can be amplified (made in large numbers) by another enzyme called DNA polymerase. The amplified DNA copies help tell whether a specific mrna how to prevent yeast infections is being made by a gene. RT-PCR can be used to check the activation of certain how to prevent yeast infections genes that may indicate the presence of cancer cells. This test may be used to look for certain changes how to prevent yeast infections in a gene or chromosome, which may help diagnose cancer.

Treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a how to prevent yeast infections clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have how to prevent yeast infections not started treatment. Six types of standard treatment are used: targeted therapy

Targeted therapy is a type of treatment that uses drugs how to prevent yeast infections or other substances to identify and attack specific cancer cells how to prevent yeast infections without harming normal cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are targeted therapy drugs used to treat how to prevent yeast infections chronic myelogenous leukemia.

Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop how to prevent yeast infections the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from how to prevent yeast infections dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a how to prevent yeast infections vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells how to prevent yeast infections throughout the body ( systemic chemotherapy). When chemotherapy is placed directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas ( regional chemotherapy). The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type how to prevent yeast infections and stage of the cancer being treated.

Biologic therapy is a treatment that uses the patient’s immune system to fight cancer. Substances made by the body or made in a laboratory how to prevent yeast infections are used to boost, direct, or restore the body’s natural defenses against cancer. This type of cancer treatment is also called biotherapy or how to prevent yeast infections immunotherapy.

High doses of chemotherapy are given to kill cancer cells. Healthy cells, including blood-forming cells, are also destroyed by the cancer treatment. Stem cell transplant is a treatment to replace the blood-forming cells. Stem cells (immature blood cells) are removed from the blood or bone marrow of the how to prevent yeast infections patient or a donor and are frozen and stored. After the patient completes chemotherapy, the stored stem cells are thawed and given back to how to prevent yeast infections the patient through an infusion. These reinfused stem cells grow into (and restore) the body’s blood cells.

See drugs approved for chronic myelogenous leukemia for more information. Enlarge stem cell transplant. (step 1): blood is taken from a vein in the arm of how to prevent yeast infections the donor. The patient or another person may be the donor. The blood flows through a machine that removes the stem how to prevent yeast infections cells. Then the blood is returned to the donor through a how to prevent yeast infections vein in the other arm. (step 2): the patient receives chemotherapy to kill blood-forming cells. The patient may receive radiation therapy (not shown). (step 3): the patient receives stem cells through a catheter placed into how to prevent yeast infections a blood vessel in the chest. Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI)

Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) is a cancer treatment that may be used after stem how to prevent yeast infections cell transplant. Lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) from the stem cell transplant donor are removed from the how to prevent yeast infections donor’s blood and may be frozen for storage. The donor’s lymphocytes are thawed if they were frozen and then how to prevent yeast infections given to the patient through one or more infusions. The lymphocytes see the patient’s cancer cells as not belonging to the body and how to prevent yeast infections attack them. Surgery

For some patients, taking part in a clinical trial may be the best how to prevent yeast infections treatment choice. Clinical trials are part of the cancer research process. Clinical trials are done to find out if new cancer how to prevent yeast infections treatments are safe and effective or better than the standard how to prevent yeast infections treatment.

Patients who take part in clinical trials also help improve how to prevent yeast infections the way cancer will be treated in the future. Even when clinical trials do not lead to effective new how to prevent yeast infections treatments, they often answer important questions and help move research forward. Patients can enter clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment.

Some clinical trials only include patients who have not yet how to prevent yeast infections received treatment. Other trials test treatments for patients whose cancer has not how to prevent yeast infections gotten better. There are also clinical trials that test new ways to how to prevent yeast infections stop cancer from recurring (coming back) or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment.

Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the how to prevent yeast infections country. Information about clinical trials supported by NCI can be found how to prevent yeast infections on NCI’s clinical trials search webpage. Clinical trials supported by other organizations can be found on how to prevent yeast infections the clinicaltrials.Gov website. Follow-up tests may be needed.

Some of the tests that were done to diagnose the how to prevent yeast infections cancer or to find out the stage of the cancer how to prevent yeast infections may be repeated. Some tests will be repeated in order to see how how to prevent yeast infections well the treatment is working. Decisions about whether to continue, change, or stop treatment may be based on the results of how to prevent yeast infections these tests.

Some of the tests will continue to be done from how to prevent yeast infections time to time after treatment has ended. The results of these tests can show if your condition how to prevent yeast infections has changed or if the cancer has recurred (come back). These tests are sometimes called follow-up tests or check-ups. Treatment options for chronic myelogenous leukemia

Physician data query (PDQ) is the national cancer institute’s (NCI’s) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information how to prevent yeast infections on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical how to prevent yeast infections language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up how to prevent yeast infections to date and most versions are also available in spanish.

PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the national institutes of health how to prevent yeast infections (NIH). NIH is the federal government’s center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of how to prevent yeast infections the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the how to prevent yeast infections NIH. Purpose of this summary

This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about the how to prevent yeast infections treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. It is meant to inform and help patients, families, and caregivers. It does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making how to prevent yeast infections decisions about health care. Reviewers and updates

Editorial boards write the PDQ cancer information summaries and keep how to prevent yeast infections them up to date. These boards are made up of experts in cancer treatment how to prevent yeast infections and other specialties related to cancer. The summaries are reviewed regularly and changes are made when how to prevent yeast infections there is new information. The date on each summary ("updated") is the date of the most recent change.

A clinical trial is a study to answer a scientific how to prevent yeast infections question, such as whether one treatment is better than another. Trials are based on past studies and what has been how to prevent yeast infections learned in the laboratory. Each trial answers certain scientific questions in order to find how to prevent yeast infections new and better ways to help cancer patients. During treatment clinical trials, information is collected about the effects of a new treatment how to prevent yeast infections and how well it works. If a clinical trial shows that a new treatment is how to prevent yeast infections better than one currently being used, the new treatment may become "standard." patients may want to think about taking part in a how to prevent yeast infections clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have how to prevent yeast infections not started treatment.

PDQ is a registered trademark. The content of PDQ documents can be used freely as how to prevent yeast infections text. It cannot be identified as an NCI PDQ cancer information how to prevent yeast infections summary unless the whole summary is shown and it is how to prevent yeast infections updated regularly. However, a user would be allowed to write a sentence such how to prevent yeast infections as “NCI’s PDQ cancer information summary about breast cancer prevention states how to prevent yeast infections the risks in the following way: [include excerpt from the summary].”

Images in this summary are used with permission of the how to prevent yeast infections author(s), artist, and/or publisher for use in the PDQ summaries only. If you want to use an image from a PDQ how to prevent yeast infections summary and you are not using the whole summary, you must get permission from the owner. It cannot be given by the national cancer institute. Information about using the images in this summary, along with many other images related to cancer can be how to prevent yeast infections found in visuals online. Visuals online is a collection of more than 3,000 scientific images.

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