Bbc – future – what is the worst time severe yeast infection symptoms of day to get sick

Take a good hard look at the skin of your severe yeast infection symptoms forearm. Pinch it if you like. It may not look or feel any different from the severe yeast infection symptoms way it did 12 hours ago, but if you were to cut or burn it, the skin would heal more than twice as fast if severe yeast infection symptoms you injured it during daylight hours, compared to if it happened at night.

This variation in our response to insult and injury extends severe yeast infection symptoms far beyond the skin. If you go for a seasonal flu jab, aim for a morning appointment: you’ll produce more than four times as many protective antibodies severe yeast infection symptoms if you’re injected with it between 9am and 11am, compared to six hours later. Should you ever require heart surgery, however, the converse is true: your long-term survival prospects are significantly better if you go under severe yeast infection symptoms the knife in the afternoon.

Indeed, wherever you look in the body, from the brain to the immune system, 24-hour rhythms that govern the activity of cells and tissues severe yeast infection symptoms – often referred to as “circadian rhythms” – appear to dictate our physical recovery from infection and injury.

“who we are physiologically in the daytime is different than severe yeast infection symptoms who we are at night,” says tami martino, director of the centre of cardiovascular investigations at the university severe yeast infection symptoms of guelph in ontario, canada, who is seeking to apply this emerging knowledge about biological severe yeast infection symptoms timing to human and animal medicine. From cancer to cardiology, arthritis to allergies, a better understanding of these rhythms could enable drugs and severe yeast infection symptoms interventions to be given to patients at times when they’re most likely to be effective and the least likely severe yeast infection symptoms to cause harm. Strengthening these rhythms may also enable patients to recover faster severe yeast infection symptoms and reduce some physical symptoms of disease.

“it is my personal belief that circadian medicine can forever severe yeast infection symptoms change the way we manage human health,” says martino. “it is right up there on the scale with things severe yeast infection symptoms like gene therapy, stem cells and artificial intelligence for one of the most severe yeast infection symptoms promising new technologies to deal with global burdens of disease.”

The idea that our physiology varies from hour to hour severe yeast infection symptoms is, in fact, an ancient one. The greek physician hippocrates observed a 24-hour ebb and flow in the severity of fever. Traditional chinese medicine also describes the vitality of different organs severe yeast infection symptoms peaking at various times – the lungs between 3am and 5am, the heart between 11am and 1pm, the kidneys between 5pm and 7pm, and so on. There is, however, renewed interest in the effect of our internal body clocks severe yeast infection symptoms on illness and treatments from modern medicine thanks to a severe yeast infection symptoms growing number of recent studies.

By tweaking our urges, behaviour and biochemistry, these rhythms prepare us for regular events in our environment, which are themselves dictated by the daily cycle of light severe yeast infection symptoms and dark. When it comes to healing, there is a good reason why it might be heightened severe yeast infection symptoms during the day compared to at night.

“our cells evolved to be able to heal wounds more severe yeast infection symptoms effectively at the biological time when they are more likely severe yeast infection symptoms to occur,” says john O’neill, a circadian biologist at the medical research council’s laboratory of molecular biology in cambridge, UK. “if you are a human, it is extremely unlikely that you will incur a major severe yeast infection symptoms wound when you are asleep in the middle of the severe yeast infection symptoms night, whereas during the day we are much more likely to severe yeast infection symptoms become wounded.”

“we consistently found nearly a two-fold difference in wound healing simply as a function of severe yeast infection symptoms biological time,” O’neil says. And when they analysed data from the international burn injury severe yeast infection symptoms database, they found that people who suffer burns during the night severe yeast infection symptoms take approximately 11 days longer to heal than those injured severe yeast infection symptoms during the day.

Our immune system is also subject to biological rhythms that severe yeast infection symptoms affect how it responds to infections. It might seem strange at first to vary our ability severe yeast infection symptoms to respond to pathogens according to the time of day severe yeast infection symptoms says rachel edgar, a virologist at imperial college london. But it may have evolved this feature as a means severe yeast infection symptoms of protecting us against over-activation of the immune system.

She has been exploring the interaction between circadian rhythms and severe yeast infection symptoms viral infections such as herpes. In one study, she found that the herpes virus replicated 10 times as severe yeast infection symptoms much of itself in mice that were infected at the severe yeast infection symptoms beginning of their rest period – which, being nocturnal, falls during the early morning – compared to if they were infected at the start of severe yeast infection symptoms their active period. Their findings suggest that the effect may be due to severe yeast infection symptoms more than changes in the activity in the immune system. The daily rhythms of the infected cells themselves also affect severe yeast infection symptoms the extent of a viral infection.

This evidence fits with a recent human study, which found enhanced responses to the seasonal flu vaccine when severe yeast infection symptoms it was given in the morning compared to the afternoon. Even so, suggesting that there’s an optimal time of day to fall ill is severe yeast infection symptoms too simplistic, cautions edgar.

Take sepsis, an overwhelming, and life-threatening response to an infection – it can be triggered by injecting molecules found on the severe yeast infection symptoms surface of bacteria into the blood. If you do this to mice during their “night”, just 20% of them survive, compared to more than 90% if they’re injected during their active period.

“if we know that a virus spreads to neighbouring cells severe yeast infection symptoms at a particular time, we could potentially give antiviral therapies at the time when severe yeast infection symptoms they are going to be most efficacious,” says edgar. “doing so could reduce the quantity of antivirals you need severe yeast infection symptoms to give, which also has implications for patient compliance.”

It’s not only our response to infections that could benefit severe yeast infection symptoms from this approach. More than half of the world health organization’s essential medicines – 250 drugs found in every hospital in the world – appear to hit molecular pathways regulated by internal cellular clocks, which could make them more or less effective depending on severe yeast infection symptoms when they are taken. These include the common painkillers aspirin and ibuprofen, as well as drugs for blood pressure, peptic ulcers, asthma and cancer.

In many cases, the drugs in question have a half-life of less than six hours, which means that they don’t stay in the system long enough to work optimally severe yeast infection symptoms if they’re taken at a sub-optimal time. For instance, the blood pressure drug, valsartan, is 60% more effective when taken in the evening, compared with first thing in the morning. Aspirin has been found to be more effective when taken severe yeast infection symptoms in the evening, as are some antihistamine tablets for allergies such as hayfever.

Crucially though, the rhythms in our various organs and tissues don’t all shift at the same rate, so erratic exposure to light and dark, combined with eating when the body doesn’t expect it, can cause them to fall out of synchrony with each severe yeast infection symptoms other.

Timing drugs and treatments to when they’re likely to be more effective is not quite as severe yeast infection symptoms easy as it sounds though. The cost of clinical trials soar if you have to severe yeast infection symptoms start systematically testing for the right time of day to severe yeast infection symptoms give a treatment. There’s also an issue around getting patients to do as severe yeast infection symptoms they are told. Getting them to stick to a course of therapy is severe yeast infection symptoms already tricky, but ensuring they take those drugs at a specific time severe yeast infection symptoms is even more so.

Not everyone’s circadian rhythms are the same either. Some of us are larks and some night owls. A significant proportion of the population also work night shifts, which can have its own impact on the circadian rhythm severe yeast infection symptoms and health. And there’s currently no quick and simple test to confirm precisely severe yeast infection symptoms where the hands of an individual’s internal clock are at any given time.

Then there’s the hospital environment itself – many modern hospital buildings have small windows and dim indoor severe yeast infection symptoms lighting that remains switched on day and night. This is problematic, because too little daylight and too much artificial light at severe yeast infection symptoms night are disruptive to our biological rhythms and sleep.

Misaligned or flattened rhythms are a common feature of hospital severe yeast infection symptoms patients. Compounding the problem, certain drugs, including morphine, can also alter the timing of circadian clocks, while patients’ sleep – also critical to their ability to heal – may be further disrupted by pain, worry or noise. It is leading to questions about how seriously this is severe yeast infection symptoms impeding their recovery and survival.

Some of the strongest evidence comes from patients with heart severe yeast infection symptoms disease. Like other tissues, the cardiovascular system has a strong circadian rhythm – our heart rate and blood pressure are lowest when we’re sleeping, but rise sharply upon waking up; our platelets, small blood fragments that help blood to form clots, are stickier during the day; while the levels of hormones like adrenaline, which constrict our blood vessels and make the heart beat severe yeast infection symptoms faster, are also higher in the daytime. These circadian variations affect the timing of serious cardiac events, such as heart attacks.

“if you monitor people coming into emergency wards you find severe yeast infection symptoms that heart attacks are most likely to happen between about severe yeast infection symptoms 6am and noon compared to any other time of day severe yeast infection symptoms or night,” says martino. However, timing may also affect our ability to recover from heart severe yeast infection symptoms injury.

One recent study suggested that for people undergoing heart valve severe yeast infection symptoms replacement surgery, those who had surgery in the afternoon had half the severe yeast infection symptoms risk of experiencing a major cardiac event during the following severe yeast infection symptoms 500 days compared to those who underwent morning surgery. If all patients underwent afternoon surgery, this might result in one major event being avoided for severe yeast infection symptoms every 11 patients, the researchers calculated. Other studies have indicated that, for patients recovering from a heart attack or heart surgery, those with greater exposure to daylight have higher survival rates severe yeast infection symptoms and get out of hospital sooner.

Animal studies are providing insight into why this might be. When martino and her colleagues exposed groups of mice either severe yeast infection symptoms to normal or disrupted light-dark cycles after simulated heart attacks, they found significant differences in the number and type of severe yeast infection symptoms immune cells that rallied to the heart, the amount of scar tissue – and, ultimately, survival rates. Mice whose circadian rhythms were disrupted, as they might be during a hospital stay, were more likely to die from their heart injury. Further studies have revealed differences in the type and number severe yeast infection symptoms of immune cells that infiltrate injured heart tissue, depending on what time of day the injury occurs.

“some intensive care units or cardiac care units will dim severe yeast infection symptoms the lights a little bit at night, which is a bit helpful, but some don’t dim at all,” says martino. “for example, if people come into emergency wards and there’s no beds available, they might be under bright light all night – or they might even be in a corridor all night, having had a heart attack or stroke. And so obviously their sleep and circadian rhythms are going severe yeast infection symptoms to be profoundly disturbed during those first couple of days severe yeast infection symptoms which are so critical for healing.”

So, what to do about it? Scheduling surgery for when the body is best placed to severe yeast infection symptoms cope with it is one solution. For heart surgery, that might be the afternoon, but it may differ for other interventions. For instance, O’neill’s study of wound healing suggested that more collagen is severe yeast infection symptoms laid down when injuries are sustained during the daytime, which may be associated with greater scarring.

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