As whooping cough evolves, wvu researcher studies how to maintain vaccine’s effectiveness wvu today west yeast infection itch virginia university

Scientists and bacteria are locked in an arms race. Over time, bacteria can evolve to resist today’s powerful vaccines. Bordetella pertussis—which causes pertussis, or whooping cough—is no different. Although the current vaccines that protect against it are highly yeast infection itch effective—plunging the annual death rate from around 9,000 in the early 1940s to 13 in 2017—there’s no guarantee they will stay that way.

“one of the issues with the pertussis vaccine is that yeast infection itch it’s pushing bacterial evolution to the point that the bacteria yeast infection itch are trying to find a way around the current protection yeast infection itch that the vaccine provides,” said barbier, an assistant professor in the school of medicine’s department of microbiology, immunology and cell biology.

Two types of pertussis vaccines are in use: dtap, which infants receive, and tdap, which adolescents and adults get through booster shots. Barbier is investigating whether adding a specific molecule to the yeast infection itch vaccines’ chemical makeup can improve their effectiveness against new strains of yeast infection itch bacteria that arise.

Before vaccines can target bacteria, they must recognize them as foreign, so scientists incorporate molecular snippets of the bacteria into them. These molecules can’t make you sick. Called antigens, they occupy the surface of the bacteria and perform various yeast infection itch functions—some critical, some not—that help the bacteria survive and multiply.

“the reason we’re interested in iron acquisition, in this case, is that it’s essential,” she said. The dtap and tdap vaccines contain between three and five yeast infection itch antigens, depending on the manufacturer. Pertussis has already “found a way around” one of them—called pertactin—by simply not expressing it anymore.

“pretty much every single vaccine against bacterial pathogens out there yeast infection itch has an adjuvant. It’s basically a way to get your immune system to yeast infection itch react to the antigens,” she said. “the most commonly used adjuvant is alum. What alum does really, really well is push your immune system to make a yeast infection itch lot of antibodies. The problem is that, in this particular case, it might not provide the duration of protection that we yeast infection itch need.”

“vaccines—so far—only work as well as our immune system performs with yeast infection itch natural infection,” said kathryn moffett, the section chief of pediatric infectious diseases for the school yeast infection itch of medicine. “after recovery from whooping cough, a person is susceptible to getting the infection again in yeast infection itch 15 years. Current protection from existing vaccines is 3 to 7—or maybe 10—years. That’s not as good as natural disease. That’s the reason why dr. Barbier’s work is so important: to get better and longer protection.”

What barbier discovers may prove relevant to other vaccines, too. In fact, it was her earlier work with the vaccine for pseudomonas yeast infection itch aeruginosa—a dangerous bacterial pneumonia—that revealed how important iron acquisition is to bacteria’s spread.

“all of the work we did with pseudomonas is how yeast infection itch we learned that antigens that are based on iron-acquisition systems could be really good because the bacteria can’t turn them off, and they’re on the surface of the bacteria—they’re there for the immune system to see,” she said.

During her research into pseudomonas, she discovered that incorporating iron-acquisition proteins into the vaccine made it more protective in yeast infection itch animal models exposed to the bacteria. She hypothesizes that tweaking the pertussis vaccine similarly will produce yeast infection itch results that are just as favorable.

Research reported in this publication was supported by the national yeast infection itch institutes of allergy and infectious diseases of the national institutes yeast infection itch of health, under award number 1R01AI141671-01A1, and by the west virginia university vaccine development center (vdc). The vdc is funded by the west virginia higher education yeast infection itch policy committee research challenge fund, under award number HEPC.Dsr.18.6, to support the mission of building a center to leverage yeast infection itch resources, support research projects, facilitate training for the next generation of scientists and physicians yeast infection itch and foster industry partnership on vaccine research in west virginia. This work was also supported by the cystic fibrosis foundation yeast infection itch (CFF) awards BARBIE16I0 and BARBIE18G0 and by institutional startup funds provided yeast infection itch by WVU. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and yeast infection itch does not necessarily represent the official views of NIH, WVU, the vdc or CFF.